I am an individual with over 20 years experience in Management. Responsible for projects resulting in significant gains in quality, cost, customer alignment, collaboration and staff development. I possess sharp ability to lead and motivate employees, extensive capacity in customer service relation; gained through different programs and seminars. Im familiar with all aspects of a daily business operations including; Personnel, Human Recourse Issues, Claims, Safety Programs, Contracting Negotiations, Payroll, and Special Events.
AMA American Manager Association
International Parking Institute
Florida Parking Association
Honorary Co-Chairman Business Advisory Council
National Republican Congressional Committee 2004
Businessman Of The Year 2004
Congressional Medal Of Freedom 2004
Biltmore Executive of the Year 2005, 2006 & 2007
The New Challenge for the 21st Century
Manuel Grossy Ph.D.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Existing parking Systems 16
Avoiding congestions 29
Parking discipline 49
Your Mobility Is Guaranteed Only
When Your Beast Is Safe
Every vehicle on a thoroughfare can impede other road users, particularly when traffic size comes up to a roads ability and capacity. The consequential congestion reduces mobility and increases driver nervous tension, vehicle overheads and contamination. Traffic overcrowding is considered as one of the main transportation problems in most urban regions. There has always been a need to establish a framework for a safe parking and transit system that should emphasize on parking management and has the potential to reduce the demand for parking and to reduce the need to build additional parking facilities. The success of any strategies formulated is dependent upon an aggressive advertising and information campaign by the authorities concerned. The willingness by the parking users is also very essential to make any system a success. It is believed that parking should be kept as effective as possible, while at the same time the ongoing maintenance must be continued at the same time. The parking must provide efficient and affordable solutions to individual transportation needs. In addition for the park and ride transportation, the funding should be available. Today the parking is a problem of every metropolitan city of the world .the amount of vehicles which are inducted on the already jam packed roads and high ways are increasing day by day. The problem is likely to continue for years to come.
The increasing number of vehicles in use in the cities of all developed countries has led to a host of road safety problems, including those caused by increased need for parking space, vehicles parked illegally and dangerously, and parking generally adding to traffic congestion. This affects the effective movement of public transport and many essential services using city routes, such as delivery vehicles. Cars particularly spend most of the time stationary. Cars require several parking spaces, not just outside the owners homes, but also at workplaces, supermarkets, leisure venues, or even in the country. Britain now has a population of over 23 million cars, increasing demand for parking spaces not just for historic cities with narrow streets, but also for most urban and suburban areas. Parking congestion affects the smooth running of urban environments, as it prevents access to major shopping centers, airports, hospitals, employers, colleges, and other public buildings. In particular, difficulties arise in maintaining access into and out of buildings, particularly for essential services such as ambulance and police vehicles requiring immediate entry to a building, and for keeping fire exits and access for disabled peoples vehicles clear.
Regulations help reduce road accidents, and preventing cars parking near school gates and junctions is a major priority of many police forces. However, parked vehicles can be used deliberately as part of safety-improving traffic calming schemes. The rise in traffic levels has led to attempts at traffic control, including ways to ration both on-street and off-street parking in urban areas. Parking areas are mainly controlled through the use of charges imposed via meters, pay-and-display machines, barriers, and permits, while (in Britain) yellow lines denote where parking should not happen. Other means of controlling parking include paper vouchers, developed in Israel and now widely used in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Electronic in-car meters are now being used in France and the United States. Planners are attempting to encourage people to park in car parks outside town centers and complete their journeys by bus, a system known as park-and-ride.
Police traffic wardens were introduced to Britain, along with parking meters and yellow lines, in 1958. Parking regulations are enforced by traffic wardens issuing penalty tickets, though serious or repeat offenders may have their cars wheel-clamped or even removed to a car pound where they need to pay a penalty to retrieve them. The use of wheel clamps to immobilize cars parked on private car parks is common in England and Wales, although the Automobile Association and Royal Automobile Club are campaigning against this activity. In Scotland, however, clamping cars and charging a release fee is illegal.
Local authorities in Britain only had the power to enforce meter and residents bays, as well as off-street car parks. However, the Road Traffic Act 1991 transferred parking enforcement to local councils, which now enforce yellow lines; in London, for example, all boroughs now enforce yellow lines, and the Metropolitan Police is now creating a 500-km (315-mi) priority road network, known as the red routes, on which it will clamp and remove illegally parked cars.
Parks are a means of removing cars from the street totally. However, surface and multi-story car parks are widely regarded as unattractive additions to the townscape, while underground car parks are expensive. Car parks also have problems of their own, being widely associated with theft and robbery. Rising fear of crime among drivers has prompted many car park owners to install closed-circuit television, improve lighting, and provide more patrols. The poor structural condition of many car parks, many built in the 1960s and 1970s, is another problem, such as failure of safety barriers.
As car ownership levels continue to rise, methods of maximizing and rationing parking space will increase. For example, many towns are introducing residents parking schemes and park-and-ride, and are encouraging car-pooling. Some cities are allowing more underground car parks, or computer-controlled parking silos, which occupy less space than conventional car parks. Car-less housing projects are being planned in European cities, and a novel alternative to parking on land is the floating car park. An example is the P-Ark in Gothenburg harbor, Sweden. Central and local governments are now considering taxing private parking spaces. Ultimately, though, it is inevitable that planning limitations on the building of new car parks will increase.
Traffic congestion, often bad enough to require drastic control measures, was a feature of city life at least as early as Roman times. A basic cause, then as now, was poor city planning, with roads laid out in such a way as to bring traffic from all quarters to a central crossing point. In the 1st century BC Julius Caesar banned wheeled traffic from Rome during the daytime, a measure gradually extended to cities in the provinces. Late in the 1st century AD the emperor Hadrian was forced to limit the total number of carts entering Rome. About 1500 Leonardo da Vinci, envisioning a revolutionary solution to urban traffic problemsthen acute in the crowded and busy Italian cities proposed separating wheeled and pedestrian traffic by creating routes at different levels. Except for the railway, however, few segregated route systems were established before the 20th century. Congestion was severe enough in European cities of the 17th century to require ordinances prohibiting parking on certain streets and establishing one-way traffic. The advent of the railroad brought temporary relief to the growing problem of road traffic control, though it created congestion at terminals inside cities. The automobile, with its increase first in speed and then in numbers over horse-drawn transport, rapidly created a new situation that was to become one of the characteristic problems of urban industrialized society in the 20th century.
Causes of Over Crowding
The capacity of a road is dependent on various factors like road width and intersection configurations areas left along the road for safety and parking. One of the causes is the speed and density as well. There is a relationship between traffic speed, volume and density for a road used. Traffic speed and flow on urban streets are determined largely by crossroads capability, which is affected by traffic volumes on cross streets and turn signal time. Tables 1 and 2 below show the relation between these.
Table 1 Highway Speed, Flow and Density
LOS Speed Range
(Mph) Flow Range
(Veh. /hour/lane) Density Range
A Over 60 Under 700 Under 12
B 57-60 700-1,100 12-20
C 54-57 1,100-1,550 20-30
LOS Speed Range
(Mph) Flow Range
(Veh. /hour/lane) Density Range
D 46-54 1,550-1,850 30-42
E 30-46 1,850-2,000 42-67
F Under 30 Unstable 67-Maximum
Source- (Homburger, Kell and Perkins, 1992)
Table 2 Maximum Traffic Volumes (Per Hour per Lane)
LOS A LOS B LOS C LOS D LOS E
4-lane Freeway 700 1,100 1,550 1,850 2,000
2-lane Highway 210 375 600 900 1,400
4-lane Highway 720 1,200 1,650 1,940 2,200
Source- (Homburger, Kell and Perkins, 1992)
Traffic incidents and hazards (defective vehicles and accidents) are chief causes for overcrowding and an estimated 60% of delay hours. Although casual events only cause significant delays where traffic volumes approach road capacity, and so are considered congestion costs. In non-congested conditions an incident causes little or no traffic delay, but a hindered car on the shoulder of a congested road can cause 100-200 vehicle hours of delay on adjacent lanes.
Larger and heavier vehicles being slow in speed require more road space and are therefore cause larger traffic congestion than smaller, lighter vehicles. The virtual congestion effect of different vehicles is measured in terms of Passenger Car Equivalents or PCEs. Large trucks tend to have 3-5 PCEs, depending on traffic conditions. A large SUV imposes 1.4 PCEs and a van 1.3 PCEs when traveling through an intersection (Shabih and Kikkoman, 1999).
A vehicles road space requirements increase with speed, because drivers must leave more safety distance between their vehicle and other objects on or beside the roadway. Traffic flow (the number of vehicles that can travel on a road over a particular time period) tends to be optimized at 30-55 mph on highways with no intersections, and at even lower speeds on arterials with signalized intersections. When a roadway approaches its maximum capacity, even a small speed decrease can considerably increase flow rates as indicated in Table 3.
Table 3 Traffic Speed and Flow
Level of Service Speed (Km/hr) Flow (vehicles/lane/hour)
A 60 mph 720
B 60 mph 1,200
C 59 mph 1,650
D 57 mph 1,940
E 55 mph 2,200
(Homburger, Kell and Perkins, 1992)
The over crowding has necessitated an effective parking system to be developed. Every city has its own peculiar requirements of parking and thus the need can only be met if the parking is made according to the requirements. (STPP, Easing the Burden)
Existing Parking Systems
To have an effective flow of transport with out interruption and ensuring safety various parking systems have been designed and are operative today in various cities. Some of these are discussed in succeeding paragraphs.
Private Non-Residential Parking (PNR: This system makes up a considerable amount of the total number of parking places in various town and city centers. Neither national nor local governments have any current power to influence the number or use of existing spaces. There is a common supposition that the accessibility of PNR influences whether people choose to drive to work, and thus means that urban traffic levels are higher than they would otherwise be, particularly during peak periods. It is often suggested that reducing the number of such spaces would reduce congestion. There seems to be not much effects of existing PNR on the travel choices of existing users and on the local economy. At present there are no charges levied on the private parking.
Park and Ride: Vehicle based Parks and ride schemes, which operate and are in practice provide considerable amount of facility to the road users. It suggests that park and ride may attract additional visitors to a town at the expense of competitors; that it may not in itself reduce town center traffic levels, and that it may lead to an overall increase in car mileage. The availability of park and ride has to great extent influenced the changes in behavior. The change in habits can be used to develop wider traffic management and sustainable parking development objectives.
University of Louisiana
The Parking, Transit and Identification Systems of this university are to manage the parking. The parking system for the University has three types of parking areas:
Prime parking Areas: These are the areas, which are located in the main campus and are used for the visitors of the university staff, students and general public visiting the university.
Non-Prime Parking Sites: These parking areas are located off the campus and are away from the prime parking.
Resident Hall Zone: These are the parking areas used by the resident hall students for their vehicles.
To reduce the traffic in the university, the Transit System provides buses to transport users to the center of campus. The system utilizes a remote parking lot and brings passengers to the main campus. As a result, traffic congestion on the main campus streets is minimal. The majority of students and users depend on the transit system for transportation to and from classes since it is less expensive, convenient, and prime parking is limited.
Safety for Parked Vehicles
To ensure a safe parking an Identification Systems is introduced which ensures identification of all those who use the parking facility. The main aspects of the Parking & Transit and Identification Systems are:
Parking Permits: The Parking & Transit office facilitates for the selling of parking permits for all parking zones offered at the University.
Control: With the assistance of University Police, the Parking & Transit office manages parking within campus by issuing parking tickets to students, faculty, staff, and visitors improperly parked on campus. All parking violations are to be paid in the Parking & Transit office.
Inquiry Booths: The Parking and Transit office operates pay parking lots and additionally, the staff also manages the Information. Identification cards are processed for all students, faculty staff and issue the same.
University of North Carolina
This university has developed a different system for the parking of their transport. There are a total of 16,000 parking spaces under University management, including 13,378 on the Main Campus. There are 2,822 parking spaces off campus. There are 957 surface parking spaces under University management on the East Campus. Three principle lots serve this area: The Friday Center lot, which is the primary hub not only for the Friday Center; The UNC Hospitals Administrative Office Building lot and a contiguous lot for the Tennis Center; and a 400-space town park and ride facility.
There are 1,432 surface parking spaces on the Horace Williams tract, including 539 for storage parking and 405 spaces used for park and ride. In addition, on-site parking is provided for physical plant, facilities management, and some business operations.
A number of employees and nonresident students who drive alone to campus live less than a mile from a bus stop. Since 1990, over 1,400 parking spaces have been lost to construction on Main Campus. Some parking spaces are lost to the general allocation process through conversion to special reserved status, thus making them unavailable for general employee parking. Inadequate short-term parking exists for persons needing to visit a building to drop off or pick up an item. This is an inconvenience for many people, and often results in illegal parking in unauthorized locations or in nearby spaces.
At the beginning of the 1997-98, there were a total of 11,787 parking spaces available for allocation to students and employees of the University and UNC Hospitals, including 9,580 on the Main Campus in surface lots and parking decks Some of the most complex transportation and parking issues stem from the various forms of entertainment the University provides from sports to cultural events. Each person at the University has unique needs and abilities, with respect to how he or she arrives to the campus and moves about it each day. Developing policies and plans that accommodate the most members of the University is one of the regular events at the university.
Parking at Air Ports
A large number of companies are looking after the parking arrangements at the airports of the world. All airports have developed different systems according to their requirements. They are looking at a variety of possibilities to use the automated system to make parking experience faster, smoother, safer and more efficient. This is a part of a larger ongoing airport policy to reduce all the little snags and irritations that are often part of the traveling experience.
Normally a 2500 vehicle parking facility (ramp and surface lot) offers airport visitors safe and secure parking with streamlined parking service. During a time of high demand, such as during the holidays, a 1000 car remote lot are also made activated to accommodate maximum travelers. Calling the Airport parking offices can access automated information of parking availability. An automated revenue control system calculates the length of parking stay electronically keeps track of vital information on facility capacity and makes entering and exiting the ramp faster and easier for the traveler. The airport and the Sheriffs Department of the area provide security for the parking facility. These personnel are on site to ensure the security of vehicles and the safety of travelers during Short-term parking (hourly), Long-term parking (daily) and Handicapped parking on all four levels adjacent to elevators Nine stairways (eight ramp-side, one terminal-side) Four crosswalks connecting ramp to terminal Two covered crosswalks One enclosed skywalk Rental cars .
Parking at Gate Wick air Port UK
Both the north and south Terminals have Long and Short Term car parks. They are well signposted from airport access roads. It is cheaper to use Long Term parking, but allow extra transfer time to terminals. Business class passengers have dedicated Fast Track parking areas in each Short Term car park. The short term and long term parks car park serve both Arrivals and Departures.24 hour bus transfer is also made available between the long-term car parks and the terminals. It takes 15 minutes for transfers to/from long-term parks. Fast Track parking is also made available for business class passengers in Short Term car parks at both terminals. Valet parking is available at both Terminals. One has to drive to the Terminal forecourt, where a driver will collect your car and park it for you. Bays for disabled badge holders are reserved in all car parks. A stay over 8 hours is charged at the cheaper long-term rate even in short term parks.
Parking at Hospitals
At one of the UNC Hospitals the parking is made available for the visitors on payment of fee. Patient parking is available, at a nominal fee, in the parking decks across from the UNC Hospitals. Valet parking is also available, for a fee, by driving to the front of UNC Hospitals. There is a patient drop-off especially designed to address the needs of the medically and physically challenged. Disability parking spaces are designated along the Parking Deck.
At another hospital the Riverside Methodist Hospital, the parking is made available with different regulations. It offers three general types of parking for visitors: garages, outside lots and valet. The parking garages and outside lots are open 24 hours a day. Timed Valet parking is available at the main entrance of the hospital, at the turn-around in front of the entrance and near the parking garage. Flat rate parking passes for visitors are available for unlimited parking in the garage or outside lots. They allow to come and go as many times in one day $3.50. If the patient stays in the hospital for 30 consecutive days, parking for visitors is free. Passes are issued for two weeks at a time; there is no limit to the number of passes issued per patient. Handicap parking is available in all lots and the garage.
Traffic congestion and number of ever increasing transport has necessitated the formulation of parking and congestion reduction strategies. The effects of congestion reduction strategies are highly variable and site specific. A particular strategy may be effective in one situation but provides no benefit in another. Traffic engineering models are used to predict the impacts of congestion reduce strategy in a particular situation. In areas with high travel demand, urban traffic congestion tends to maintain a self-limiting equilibrium: vehicle traffic volumes increase to fill available capacity until congestion limits further growth. Any time a consumer makes a travel decision based on congestion they contribute to this self-limiting equilibrium.
Generated Traffic is the additional vehicle travel that results from increased roadway capacity. This consists of a combination of diverted vehicle trips (trips shifted in time, route and destination), and induced vehicle travel (shifts from other modes, longer trips and new vehicle trips). Over the long run, Generated Traffic often fills a significant portion (50-90%) of added urban roadway capacity. It is important to consider Generated Traffic when congestion reduction strategies. Generated Traffic does not eliminate the benefits of capacity expansion projects, but it can significantly change the nature of their benefits. It often means that congestion reduction benefits are smaller and shorter lived than projected, that more benefits consist of increased consumer mobility and urban fringe property values, and induced vehicle travel can exacerbate problems such as downstream congestion, crashes, pollution emissions, urban sprawl and overall automobile dependency. Evaluation that ignores the effects of Generated Traffic tends to overstate the true benefits of roadway capacity expansion and understate the benefits of demand management strategies.
Not all congestion reduction strategies cause induced travel. The requirement of parking still continues to rise. Strategies that change the point of congestion equilibrium can cause real reductions in traffic congestion. This can be done by increasing the generalized cost of driving (i.e., combined time and financial costs) under congested conditions, or by making peak-period alternative travel options significantly more attractive. For example, Road Pricing and other vehicle user fees, Priority and Traffic Calming generally do not reduce the overall cost of driving, and so are unlikely to generate traffic. Roadway capacity expansion or Flextime (which frees up peak-period road space) is likely to generate traffic.
Table 4- Summaries of Rebound Effects and Additional Benefits
Likely to Cause Generated Traffic Causes Little or No Generated Traffic
Road Capacity Expansion
Intelligent Transportation Systems
Incident Detection and Management
Motorist Information Systems
Reversible Lanes Road Pricing
Commute Trip Reduction Programs
Distance Based Fees
Freight Transport Management
Traffic Calming and Roundabouts
Speed Limit Enforcement
Car-Free Planning and Vehicle Restrictions
The effective measures can be useful in controlling the traffic congestions. The parings play a vital role in controlling the congestions. Some of the measures, which can be helpful, are: -
Road Pricing involves charging motorists directly for driving on a particular road or in a particular area. Congestion Pricing is Road Pricing with higher rates during congested periods. It can reduce traffic over crowding on a particular road, particularly if implemented as part of a comprehensive traffic management program; Road Pricing applied on just one roadway may cause traffic to shift routes, increasing traffic congestion on other roads. This will effect reduction of transport on the road and less traffic will reduce the need for the parking. Charging vehicles directly for the use of the roads has been advocated as a solution to problems of congestion and environmental damage caused by excessive traffic.
The most advanced road pricing systems record and display charges to motorists using a device like a taxi meter placed in each car, with charges clocked up by a signal from a roadside beacon, gantry, or more distant radio communication. The charge would vary according to the size of vehicle and the road conditions, for example, higher charges in congested city streets. Payment could be made by a stored-value card inserted into a device in the car, or in response to a bill sent by a central computer with records of where each car has been, and when. Interactive systems could also allow for checks on whether each vehicle has a legitimate license, is entitled to be in the area, has outstanding bills, and so on, and could provide motorists with route advice and real-time information on traffic conditions. Low-tech solutions include passes which could be bought and displayed in the windscreen, and tollbooths on major roads.
The theory behind road pricing is that when vehicles travel in congested conditions each one imposes delays on all the others, which is an extra cost, not met, or considered, by the individual driver. Road pricing ensures that each driver is confronted with the costs that he or she imposes on everybody else, thereby discouraging a proportion of journeys whose benefits, to the individuals concerned, do not justify the cost. Drivers may also be influenced to change the time of day, route, or location of their journeys, or to travel by public transport instead. However, motorists are not very sensitive to price changes, so changes might need to be rather high to have a detectable effect. There are concerns about a threat to civil liberties.
Many countries (including the United Kingdom, Netherlands, and Hong Kong) have carried out large-scale studies into road pricing, but have then decided not to go ahead, mainly for fear of political opposition. A recurrent argument is whether to use the money collected for building more roads, or supporting better public transport or as a contribution to general tax revenue. The most advanced implemented examples are toll systems in Singapore and Scandinavia, but this fall short of the idea of a comprehensive application of market principles to the road network.
Trip Reduction programs promote commuters to use different modes for trips to work. Such programs have a tendency to be mainly successful if they include appropriate incentives in the shape of financial benefits, such as Transit Benefits or Parking prices. In most areas, commute traffic represents the majority of traffic on congested roads so Commute Trip Reduction programs can be particularly effective at reducing traffic congestion.
Car commuters could find themselves having to pay for the privilege of crossing canals ring or using the motorways. For quite some time, the consultants have been assessing the potential for introducing such road pricing to deal with what they called "the growing gap between travel demand and transport supply". The economic rationale for road pricing is to change usage patterns by charging motorists for the use of road space.
It is grounded in the fact that every driver using the roads in congested conditions imposes delays on everyone else, and these delays have a cost not taken into account in his or her personal choices.
The area taken up by a private car for a five-kilometer journey in normal conditions ranges from 30 square meters per hour for short shopping trips, to 90 square meters per hour for home to work trips, including parking space at work. Given the huge volume of cars now using the roads during peak periods, congestion is the inevitable consequence. The challenge facing the authorities and increasingly being taken up by them is to reallocate road space for more efficient modes of transport and to put the emphasis on moving people rather than vehicles.
Road pricing has obvious potential in helping to achieve better traffic management. It was pioneered in 1975 in Singapore, where charging tolls to enter the city center is now fully automated. Electronic surveillance cameras monitor compliance as the tolls are deducted from pre-paid cash cards in units fixed to the dashboards of all cars.
Combined with the provision of an efficient public transport system, this has reduced traffic levels in Singapore by 17 per cent and raised the average speed at peak periods to an astonishing 60 k.p.h. Cars are also very expensive and require a "certificate of entitlement", of which a large numbers are to be auctioned every month. Singapore is far from the front rank of democratic countries and its people are well used to restrictions on their freedom. However, European cities are moving to follow its example, on road pricing at least.
Oslo is one city set to become the first European capital to introduce electronic tolling for cars entering the city center, using the same system as Singapore.
Zurich does not need to involve itself in road pricing. Over recent years, it has progressively reduced the availability of parking to non-residents to a maximum of 90 minutes, forcing commuters to park at the edge of the city and take a bus or tram. The speed limit on many streets has also been reduced to 30 k.p.h. (18.6 m.p.h.).
In Amsterdam, there is no sense of a city dominated by cars. One of its main streets, Damrak, is slightly wider than Westmoreland Street with a potential five traffic lanes. Instead, in a classic example of allocating road space, it consists of two wide footpaths, two wide cycle tracks, two tramlines and a single lane for cars.
There is no traffic congestion in Stockholm. The Swedish capital has an excellent public transport system, based on a metro with 102 stations, 99 of which are disabled-accessible, supplemented by suburban rail, buses and, lately, a light rail line looping around the inner suburbs. It is also starting to demolish city center "parking houses".
Athens is considering restricting access to zero or low emission cars because of alarmingly high levels of air pollution, threatening public health as well as the Acropolis. It first tried restricting access to cars with even number registrations one day and odd-numbered registrations the next - though this discriminates in favor of two-car families.
In Britain, following publication in July 1998 of the government's white paper "A New Deal for Transport", the treasury estimated that the income from road pricing measures would exceed 1 billion by 2005, with this revenue being used to fund improvements to public transport.
Parking Management and Parking Pricing measures can be very successful to lessen automobile travel, and are likely to be effective particularly in urban areas where congestion problems are at the maximum. Parking management addresses the problem of having too many cars and not enough spaces. It also creates excellent incentives for employees to rideshare. Free parking is a strong incentive to drive alone, a subsidy that removes the cost of parking from the driver's trip. Parking management may involve preferential parking strategies, such as reserved spaces, free close in parking spaces for ridesharing vehicles, and monthly permit fees for non-rideshares.
Ninety percent of all commuters park for free at work. Free employee parking is a strong disincentive to carpool or uses other alternative modes of transportation. It is also an expensive commodity. Maintenance and operations (painting, resurfacing, and sweeping) is generally figured at 1.5 percent of the initial construction cost annually. Other costs not included here are utilities for lighting, security, insurance for fire or theft, parking enforcement, and overhead.
It is generally found that employees do not value their parking spaces as much as it costs employers to provide them. Parking charges lead to reductions in demand for parking, the number of trips made, vehicle miles traveled, and auto emissions. If employees have to pay for parking, many of them switch to alternative modes of transportation. The table below summarizes the typical effect of parking charges on commute trips.
Commute Trip Reductions from Daily Parking Charges
$1 $2 $3 $4
Suburb 6.5% 15.1% 25.3% 36.1%
Suburban Center 12.3% 25.1% 37.0% 46.8%
Central Business District 17.5% 31.8% 42.6% 50.0%
Source:-National Urban Transit Institute, Center for Urban Transportation Research, 1995.
Parking management can reduce parking demand, provide a funding source for alternative commute program, and increase profitability. The reduction in parking demand can allow for conversion of parking (which generally results in no revenue to the company) to other uses, particularly when the business has plans for expansion. Parking management can be implemented to reduce auto congestion in the immediate vicinity of the work site and reduce demand for new parking structures or lots as the business expands.
By evaluating the existing parking supply and utilization prior to determining if a parking management strategy, is appropriate. Some popular strategies include:
- Imposing fees for solo drivers.
- Giving preferential spots to carpools and vanpools.
- Free parking for rides sharers.
- On-street controls, limit amount of parking time.
- Provide parking subsidy in cash, commuters can spend it on parking or choose a different mode and pocket the difference.
Providing parking is only part of meeting residents transportation and parking needs. Developers can reduce demand for parking, reduce the chances of spillover, and be more effective with parking reduction requests, if they strategically address transportation needs. The strategies for improving service to residents by means other than plentiful parking and incorporating them into a plan persuasive to policy makers and communities is very essential part of todays planning and this should :-
- encourage developers, managers and planners to meet residents transportation needs in innovative ways beyond parking.
- encourage treatment of vehicle ownership as something to be managed as opposed to something that is inevitable.
Policy makers and developers meet resident transportation needs by one dominant method: providing parking. Transportation Management Plans (TMPs) are a program of activities and services in addition or instead of parking that developers, property managers, and policy makers agree to provide residents to improve services to residents. The result may be a family avoiding adding a second or third car, or even not buying a car at all. Developers may want to implement and submit TMPs because the savings from parking construction may exceed the costs of the plan. Transportation Management Plans, which would include the portfolio of strategies, the developer plans to implement to minimize the parking and traffic impact on the neighborhood. This plan would improve the services provided to residents and reduce the demand for vehicles; as such a local government would certify the plan and allow a reduction in the parking required. The plans could be the basis of the requirement that a development not cause excessive spillover. The potential benefits are:-
Reduce parking demand
Reduce parking constructed
Decrease likelihood of parking
(Urban Mobility Study)
Flextime means that people are allowed some flexibility in their daily work schedules. This shifts travel from peak to off-peak periods, which can reduce traffic congestion directly, and it can assist commuters in matching transit and rideshare schedules, allowing mode shifts. Hence parking problems will also be over come to some extent.
Transit Improvements and Rideshare Programs can be effective ways to reduce vehicle travel, particularly under urban-peak travel conditions when congestion problems are most severe. Some communities with good transit systems have significantly less traffic congestion than those that do not, because they tend to encourage more efficient overall transportation and land use patterns.
Vehicular Priority gives Transit and Rideshare vehicles priority over general traffic through special lanes and traffic control devices. This benefits riders directly and by shifting travel from automobiles, it can reduce congestion delays for other road users.
Access Management: It is a term used for coordination between roadway design and land use to improve transportation. It involves changing land use planning and roadway design practices to limit the number of driveways and intersections on arterials and highways, constructing medians to control turning movements, encouraging clustered development, and creating more pedestrian-oriented street designs. This reduces friction along the roadway, which tends to increase traffic speeds, reduce congestion delays and reduce crashes.
Traffic Calming: This includes a variety of roadway design features that reduce vehicle traffic speeds and volumes. Some traffic calming results in smoother traffic and more optimal speeds, causing overall reductions in congestion delays. In particular, Modern Roundabouts are an alternative to stop signs and traffic signals at small and medium-size intersections that can reduce stopping requirements and avoid traffic platoons (vehicles bunching up at intersections).
Various strategies that increase intersection capacity can reduce delays, since intersections are often a limiting factor in roadway traffic flow. These include additional lanes at the intersection approach, left- and right-turn lanes, and improved signal synchronization. Intelligent Transportation Systems include the application of a wide range of new technologies, including driver information, vehicle control and tracking systems, transit improvements and electronic charging. These can provide a variety of transportation improvements, including driver convenience, reduced congestion, and increased safety, more competitive transit, and support for pricing incentives.
A significant portion of traffic congestion results from some sort of traffic incident, such as a disabled vehicle, a crash or dangerous driving. Many urban regions have coordinated programs that prevent, identify and respond to such events quickly and efficiently. These may include centralized traffic management centers, video traffic surveillance, emergency response teams and special resources for dealing with specific problems, such as cranes and even helicopters to move disabled vehicles.
Traffic management can help to produce better and safer local road conditions, both for those who live and work in rural areas and for visitors, and protect the character of the countryside. Countryside traffic strategies, that enable individual traffic schemes to be brought forward as part of a wider consideration of traffic and transport, will be important parts of local transport plans. Traditional traffic management measures can have an urban look and can be even more damaging in the countryside than on the appearance of our towns. Therefore it is encouraged to continue development of new and creative ways of designing local traffic schemes to make them more responsive to their environments measures.
Special task force to examine issues related to transportation and parking is required to be established for regularly studying and recommending the measures for Parking and management of transport in the cities, Airports, hotels and Hospitals. The issues like, who has access? How good is the access? How much will it cost? Are to be discussed and possible solutions to be found. These questions are complex but their solution will help to solve the parking problems. Some of the most complex transportation and parking issues stem from the daily employment and various forms of entertainments, sports and cultural events. Developing policies and plans that accommodate the most members of the University was one of the primary goals of the work of the Task Force.
A careful articulation of the parking needs of its various constituencies to reach and move about the cities at a reasonable time and at a reasonable cost.
A set of policies and priorities to assist people using alternative modes of access to and within the city is advertised. This may include bus, bicycle, vanpool, and pedestrian policies. The permit price be increased to cover the costs of the parking strategies and system costs, and to encourage people to use other transportation modes when they can.
Rapid and continuous advances in communications and computer technology are spurring a host of new concepts in road traffic control. Automobiles equipped with on-board computers, driver displays, and communications devices will receive instructions about the optimal path to a destination from a traffic control center. The vehicle also will periodically report its travel time and speed to be used as part of the information for the computer to give advice. In more advanced systems, the timing of traffic signals at intersections and ramps will be coordinated with the routing advice. Rather than simply accommodating vehicles that travel through the network, the system will cause patterns of travel to be altered. Computers and sensors within the vehicle will monitor the operation of critical safety systems (e.g., brakes, steering), warning the driver when conditions exceed nominal values. Communications and computers also will aid the movement of trucks and other commercial vehicles in urban areas. A dispatcher will be able to alter the schedule while the driver is on the road. For these companies, this means reduced costs, and for their customers, improved service. Drivers on long-distance intercity trips can be warned of impending bad weather. They also can receive warnings if they are entering a curve too quickly or an intersection too fast. Road safety should be greatly enhanced by such systems.
To reduce the pressure on the existing parking and to encourage use of public transport some of the measures, which can be effective, could be: -
- Free parking for vanpools and uses terminals.
- Enforcing parking replacement for losses due to various reasons.
- More short-term parking
- Reduce the number of service permits and free parking.
- Reduce the number of non-service state vehicles free of cost.
Permit Fee Proposals
- Tiered permit pricing structure, with a transit credit equal to the percentage contribution of the transit fee to total parking revenue
- Permit rate set to cover the cost of the proposed improvements and system costs
- Permit fee phase-in period for all lots that would experience substantial increases
Parking Enforcement Proposals
- Strict enforcement of regulations
- More stringent appeals process
Incentives to Encourage Use of Alternative Modes
- Free emergency ride back service to park and ride lots
- Provide a limited number of free one-day parking permits.
- Provide on-line registration and information on WEB site for persons interested in ridesharing
- Provide on-line registration and information on WEB site for free bicycle registration
- Aggressively promote and advertise alternative modes of transportation and their incentives,
- Develop and promote policies supporting telecommuting and flextime to reduce parking demand and traffic.
Some countries have developed traffic reduction laws to ease parking in three cities. For example in Britain The Road Traffic Reduction Act (RTRA) 1997 requires each local authority that is a traffic authority to prepare an assessment of existing levels of local road traffic in their area and a forecast of expected growth in those levels. The assessment should also contain targets for reducing the level of local traffic in their area or the rate of growth. Authorities have the option of not setting targets for part or all of their area should they consider them to be inappropriate. Authorities should take account of the characteristics and needs of their area in deciding how to proceed.
East Sussex County Council has now produced its own Road Traffic Reduction Report. It builds on a provisional report prepared for the Provisional decisions. In deciding on how to proceed, the County Council has consulted with its neighboring authorities for promoting an absolute reduction in traffic below current levels or instead seeking a reduction in growth.
Massachusettss law requires that all out-of-state cars operated in Massachusetts for more than 30 days a year be registered with the Registry of Motor Vehicles. Undergraduate students are eligible to receive a non-resident student permit from the Parking Office, which allows them to continue using their out-of-state license plates. Graduate Students are not eligible for this permit and should register their cars with the Massachusetts Registry of Motor Vehicles if it has out-of-state plates and will be in the state for more than 30 days in a year. Registration must be accomplished within 30 days of the time the motor vehicle is brought into Massachusetts. In order to obtain a City of Cambridge residential parking permit, must register the car in Massachusetts and be issued a Massachusetts Drivers License. Parking permits for parking lots are available to all residents.
The Boston/Cambridge area has one of the highest automobile theft rates in the country. It is, advisable to take some basic precautionary measures in accordance with laws formulated for the area:-
Always park in well-lighted areas. Always lock the car and pocket the keys, even leaving it unattended for only a few minutes. Install an anti-theft device and when parking the car for an extended period of time, remove the coil wire and store it in a safe place. The engine cannot be started until the coil wire is replaced. Consider installing an automatic car alarm system and record and keep in a safe place, the vital information concerning the car.
In order to have a control over traffic and to have less strain on parking the parking discipline will be of much of use. In some countries where this discipline is enforced the parking is easy and effective.
Use of Meter Or In-Vehicle Parking System (IVPS): No person should be allowed to park a vehicle, whether attended or not, in any parking space regulated by a parking meter that indicates by signal that the lawful parking time in such space has expired without properly activating the meter by depositing the cost or otherwise making appropriate payment by an authorized method or properly activating an IVPS. The registration numbers of the electronic component, the electronic debit card and all related windshield stickers comprising an IVPS must match in order for such system to be considered properly activated. A vehicle may be allowed parking at a meter without depositing a coin, using another authorized method of payment, or activating an IVPS, if there is an unimpaired interval of time shown on the meter but only if the vehicle is moved before the expiration of such interval. However, such vehicle may reactivate the meter or activate an IVPS upon expiration of the time remaining on the meter but in no event may that person remain at the space in excess of the specified time limits applicable to the parking meter zone in which such meter is located. No one shall park a vehicle in any such parking meter space during the restricted and regulated time applicable to the parking meter zone in which such meter is located.
Parking at Broken or Missing Meters: No one shall be allowed to park a vehicle at a broken meter for longer than specific time, sixty minutes (one hour). Similarly No person shall park a vehicle at a missing meter for the maximum amount of time permitted in that parking meter zone. Where parking spaces in a parking field or on a block area controlled by meter is broken or missing, the person seeking to purchase a parking receipt shall use a functional meter in the same parking field or on the same block.
Large Vehicles: When a vehicle is too large to be parked within a single parking meter space, it should not be allowed in the park with the front section alongside the forward meter. If the operator of the vehicle is using coins or another authorized method of payment other than an IVPS, such forward meter shall be operated and shall determine when the parking time has expired. If the operator of the vehicle is using an IVPS, it should be activated and shall determine when the lawful parking time has expired.
Time Allowed At Parking Meters: No person should park a vehicle in a parking meter space for more than one time period permitted in that parking meter zone, nor shall any person deposit any additional coin or coins or use another authorized method of payment for the purpose of extending such time. Similarly no one should activate an IVPS for a time period longer than one time period permitted in that parking meter zone, nor shall any person activate or reactivate an IVPS for the purpose of extending such time. Restrictions and Limitations: It shall be the duty of every person to observe the restrictions and obey the restrictive provisions prohibiting, restricting, or limiting the stopping, standing, or parking of vehicles in specified places or at specified times.
Payment Methods: Payment should be made only through authorized method. Parking meters shall be activated by the placing of a coin or coins or by insertion of a token issued by the concerned Authority only, or by the insertion of an electronic debit card. No person should attempt to deposit in any parking meter any slug; button or any other authorized device or substance.
Displaying, Selling or Offering Merchandise: No dealer, seller, hawker or should be allowed to park a vehicle at a metered parking space for purposes of displaying, selling, storing or offering merchandise for sale from the vehicle.
Parking By Disabled Persons Permitted: Parking meter zones shall be free to vehicles operated by disabled persons. They should display parking identification cards issued by the Department of Transportation.
Parking In Excess Of Allotted Time: In any parking space controlled by a Meter, which allows a person to purchase the amount of parking time desired from a machine that dispenses a receipt or tag to be displayed in the windshield no one should park a vehicle in excess of the amount of time indicated on such receipt or tag, or on posted signs. All motorists shall display payment receipts .No person shall park a vehicle before the opening hour or after the closing hour, as specified on authorized signs.
Parking In A Dangerous Manner: No person should be allowed to park a vehicle in a manner that will endanger any person or property.
Operator Responsible For Loss: The operator enters the facility at his/her own risk and the City of New York shall not be responsible for any injury or loss due to fire, theft, accident, or other causes.
Vehicles Must Be Properly Registered: No person should be allowed to park a vehicle not bearing authorized license plate or plates unless it is properly registered in accordance with the laws and rules of the state.
Valid Plates Must Be Properly Displayed: No person shall be allowed to stand or park a vehicle unless it properly displays the current plate or plates issued to similarly no person shall be allowed to stand or park a vehicle not bearing a properly displayed current registration sticker. No person shall stand or park a vehicle bearing and displaying an expired, mutilated, void, imitation, counterfeit or inappropriate registration sticker. No person shall stand or park a vehicle bearing registration plates, stickers, and tags that do not match as to information contained thereon.
Vehicles Must Display Valid Inspection Sticker: No person should be allowed to park a vehicle bearing plates not properly inspected and properly display a current inspection sticker or certificate, in accordance with relevant act of the Vehicle and Traffic Law or unless it bears dealer or transporter plates in accordance with Vehicle and Traffic Law. No vehicle shall be allowed a parking, which is bearing plates displaying any mutilated, imitation or counterfeit of an official certificate of inspection.
Vehicle Covers Prohibited: No person should be allowed to stand or park a vehicle having a cover on it that obscures the make, color, vehicle identification number (VIN), license plates and/or registration and inspection stickers, and/or restricts entry to a vehicle. No person shall be authorized to stand or park a vehicle that has the vehicle identification number obscured in any manner.
Parking Of Commercial Vehicles: No commercial vehicle should be allowed to stand or park a vehicle with commercial plates in any location unless it has been permanently altered with all seats and rear fittings, except the front seats, removed and has the name and address of the owner as shown on the registration certificate plainly marked on both sides of the vehicle in letters and numerals not less than three inches in height, in compliance with the Administrative Code and is also in compliance with the definition of commercial vehicle .
No Standing Except Trucks Loading And Unloading: Where a posted sign reads "No Standing Except Trucks Loading and Unloading," no vehicle except a commercial vehicle is allowed to be parked. However, where posted signs permit, a trailer or semi trailer may park while unattached to a motor vehicle capable of towing it on streets in industrial zoned property. Such trailers or semi-trailers may park for the length of time indicated on the posted signs. An owner of a trailer or semi trailer parked pursuant to this provision shall protect the streets from damage that may be caused by parking the unattached trailer. All doors located on such trailers or semi-trailers must be locked while the trailers are parked.
Street Storage Of Commercial Vehicles: When parking is not otherwise restricted, no person shall be allowed to park a commercial vehicle in any area, including a residential area, in excess of three hours.
Nighttime Parking Of Commercial Vehicles: No person is to park a commercial vehicle on a residential street, between rush hours and such hours are specified. Where a commercial vehicle is parked in violation of this it shall be the responsibility of the driver to justify that he/she was actively engaged in business at the time the vehicle was parked. This shall not apply to vehicles owned or operated by gas or oil heat suppliers or gas or oil heat systems maintenance companies, the agents or employees thereof, or any public utility.
Parking Of Doctors' And Dentists' Vehicles: Where parking is prohibited by signs, but not where stopping or standing is prohibited, a duly licensed physician or dentist may park his/her motor vehicle, identified by "MD," "OP" or "DDS" New York registration plates, on a roadway adjacent to hospitals or clinics for a period not to exceed three hours. At other locations where parking is prohibited by signs, but not where stopping or standing is prohibited, a duly licensed physician may park his/her motor vehicle, identified by "MD" or "OP registration plates, for a period not to exceed some specific time while actually attending to a patient in the immediate vicinity.
Bus Parking On Streets: No person shall be allowed to park a bus at any time on any street within the City, unless authorized by signs, except that a charter bus may park where parking is otherwise permitted at its point of origin or destination. No operator of a bus shall make a bus layover, except as otherwise provided in the rules. Notwithstanding any local law or rule to the contrary, but subject to the provisions of the Vehicle and Traffic Law, it shall be permissible for a school bus owned, used or hired by a public or nonpublic school to park at any time, including overnight, upon any street or roadway, provided said bus occupies a parking spot in front of and within the building lines of the premises of the public or nonpublic school. (White, Peter 1995)
In recent years, greater attention has been paid to the efficient movement of public-transport vehicles and the sharing of cars and improvements in parking. These aims are being accomplished in several ways. Specially marked traffic lanes may be reserved for buses and, in some cities, for cars with more than one occupant; city-center streets may be reserved exclusively for buses; certain types of vehicle may be given priority access to motorways; and traffic-signal systems that detect and favor buses may be employed. The overall use of highways may be restrained by road pricing, in the interests of reduced air pollution and congestion. Beside traffic control the improvement in parking is also being improved continuously.
Where the automobile is a major competitor to mass transportation and resultantly to parking problems, the use of transit is at the decline, reducing revenues available to pay the costs of these systems and services, and in a situation where governments subsidies are essential for sustaining mass transit, political support has worn as well. As more people rely on the automobile, their interest in directing public resources to improving the highway system dominates their concern for subsidizing transit. For those who can use the automobile for quick and reliable transportation, this trend simply represents the development of urban transport from collective riding to individual riding, from the economies of sharing a relatively high-speed service in a corridor where travel patterns are similar or the same, to the privacy of one's own steel cocoon, which can go anywhere, anytime, without the need to coordinate travel plans with the schedule and routes of a transit operator attempting to serve large groups of people. But on the other hand related measures have been made essential like parking, traffic control, avoiding concessions etcetera. The automobile has although captured a large share of trips in the, and only in some cities does the mass transportation share reach or exceed 10 percent of the trips. In some medium-size and small cities, mass transportation can be important for a number of reasons. First, some portion of the urban travel market is made up of people who cannot use the automobile to travel because they are handicapped, elderly, or too young to drive or due to parking problems. Some people cannot afford to own and operate a car, and the young, the old, and the handicapped often fall into this category. If these people are to have the mobility essential for subsistence and satisfaction in their lives, some form of public transportation is necessary. Second, transit provides a community with a way to move potentially large numbers of people while consuming fewer resources. A single bus, if it is full, can carry as many people as 50 or 60 cars, which normally operate with fewer than 2 occupants. The bus requires less street space, equivalent to 2 or 3 automobiles, and, when it is full, it requires much less energy to move each person. Because emissions from internal-combustion engines are proportional to fuel consumption, a full bus will produce less pollution per person-trip than an automobile. Finally, because professional drivers operate them, buses have a lower accident rate than automobiles. Electric rail rapid transit trains produce even less air pollution and are far safer per person-trip than either automobiles or buses. Transit, when it is well utilized, then, produces important benefits for the community: air-quality improvements, less land consumption than an auto-dependent transportation system, lower energy requirements, and lower accident costs. A single lane of an urban freeway may carry 5,000 persons per hour. A light rail transit line (electric trolley cars) on a separate guide way taking the same space as the highway lane might carry as many as 14,000 persons per hour. High-quality mass transportation serving dense employment and shopping areas, such as the central business district of a city or the downtown area of a suburban community, can help ensure the economic success of those areas by making it easier and less costly for large numbers of workers and shoppers to enter and leave. A successful transit system also reduces the need for downtown parking, making land available for more productive uses. Thus public transportation provides support for particular land development patterns, such as downtowns, and higher-density employment, educational, cultural, and retail activity centers. These benefits accrue not only to transit travelers but also to other residents and to the owners of land and businesses. Indeed, a major benefit of mass transportation services goes to automobile travelers, who experience less congestion and shorter travel times. There is no monetary market for these broadly distributed public goods produced by mass transportation. There is no practical way to sell clean air or lower accident rates to city dwellers to raise funds to subsidize and expand mass transit or to restrict access to these benefits only to those who pay for them. Some communities do raise revenues for transit and other purposes by levying special fees on properties particularly well served by fixed-guide way transit (for example, in downtown areas or near rail stations) to capture some of the increased value produced by raising their accessibility with public transportation. These public transportation benefits provide the justification for government subsidies. Their generation is strongly dependent on the utilization of mass transportation. The heavier the use of public transit, the larger will be the benefits produced. Yet even if only a small portion (510 percent) of the travel market uses transit in the rush hours, a major reduction in congestion can result. On the other hand, buses and trains running nearly empty in the middle of the day, during the evening, or on weekends do not produce sufficient benefits to the community to justify the high costs to provide these services. Effects of public policy the benefits of mass transportation result from the utilization of these services: more utilization produces more benefits. Crowded buses and trains signify a smaller market share for the automobile, with its attendant air pollution, congestion, accidents, and excessive land consumption. Heavy utilization of mass transportation can produce a larger revenue stream from passenger fares, which can help support these systems, either by reducing subsidy requirements or, in a few very high-density travel corridors, actually covering all the costs of providing mass transportation. There are a number of ways to increase and maintain mass transit rider ship. These differ by context and government policy, and none offers guaranteed results. Keeping transit utilization high is much easier where competition from the automobile is limited. In Third World cities, where the automobile has never taken hold, transit, bicycles, and walking remain dominant modes. Cities are more densely settled, and work, shopping, and residential activities are closely intermingled so that trip distances are short. This encourages walking and the use of bicycles, with their low energy requirements. Even if mass transportation is slow and crowded, it may be the dominant mechanized travel option in such settings. Cities in many developed countries in Europe and Asia have long-standing government policies that simultaneously controlled the growth of automobile ownership through high taxes on vehicles and their fuel; restricted land development to encourage high-density activity centers, including suburban new towns, as well as mixed land uses to keep trips short; and funneled a steady stream of public resources to subsidize mass transit operations and make capital investments to extend systems into new areas. These public investments in transit were generally not matched with similar investments in facilities for the automobile. Indeed, a number of cities around the world have restricted automobile travel to their downtown areas by defining auto-free zones, prohibiting the growth of parking, or charging high entry tolls for vehicles carrying only one or two people (Singapore). In the United States the approach has been to allow the free market, for both travel and land development, to determine the role of competing modes. Mass transportation does attract high market shares where the automobile is inherently less competitive, as, for example, travel to dense downtown areas during the rush hours. In the central areas of larger cities such as New York, Boston, Washington, Chicago, and even Los Angeles, street congestion can be intense and parking fees high. Where high-quality mass transportation is available (particularly rail service, which is as fast as or faster than the automobile), with frequent departures and high reliability, it can capture 50 to 80 percent of all travel to downtown in the rush hour. At other hours of the day, the mass transportation share of downtown travel may drop to 20 percent, and across the regions in which such cities are centered, the all-day transit share may be as little as 5 to 10 percent of trips. Mass transit is critically important to the economic and social health of these cities, and it is also important in other communities where its market share is lower but its contributions to peak-period congestion reduction and mobility assurance are significant. These effects provide the argument for public involvement in transit, through ownership, development, operation, and service subsidies. The key policy choices about mass transit in the United States concern how to spend public funds to produce these benefits, including decisions about capital investments for new and replacement technologies, the quantity and quality of services to offer, and how to pay for all of this.
Based on the broad list of recommendations presented in the previous chapter and the problem list, the task force selected those recommendations, which it thought would best achieve its goals. Options that had high costs, indirect negative impacts, or operational difficulties, were eliminated from consideration.
More development in parking means more cars. Current and future construction is supposed to enlarge the downtown work for any City, the officials if are working on various traffic and parking plans to launch in a couple of years, must know that. For now, traffic is apt to remain tight in certain spots. Only for the purpose of example, As of July 1, an estimated 98,853 people worked in the area bounded by the Sacramento and American rivers, Broadway and Alhambra Boulevard, according to the Sacramento Area Council of Governments. In the next five years, more than 10,000 new jobs are likely to be added there. Officials will have to find the right balance between providing enough parking to compete with more rapid job development in outlying areas.
Many downtown workers nonetheless say the hardest part of their commute is slogging through traffic on crowded freeways. Once downtown, traffic flows through the city fairly smoothly. . Current construction projects make predicting traffic impacts from future projects difficult. Options for traffic improvements are limited by existing street configurations. Traffic improvements planned in the next couple of years focus on improving access to outlying industrial areas, freeways, and on slowing traffic in midtowns.
Demand for parking spaces downtown has surged in the past few years, particularly because the federal government worried about terrorism. In USA, the state governments have continuously been unsuccessful to provide enough parking even for the Environmental Protection Agency buildings under construction.
The Costs of parking downtown have spiked along with demand. Hourly rates, as low as 50 cents in 1995, now average about $2. Monthly rates have increased from $100 to $125 in the last two years. Probably the biggest change for traffic in the next few years will be the heavy need for parking. The alternative-transportation incentives programs have to be introduced to attract the people. The employees, who regularly bus, bike, car-pool or use public transportation to get to work should qualify parking passes.
No amount of effort is made to control the traffic congestion and to plan the best possible parking for the cities yet the need to provide more and more parking will continue; the governments will have to make such futuristic plans which shall be able to coup with the needs of at least next fifty years or more. Public transit users should be able to receive more accurate information concerning travel time and seat availability on buses and trains. If accurate information can be provided in the home or office, the systems can spread peak loads, making service less expensive to provide and the trip more comfortable for the traveler. Those who are informed of congestion or uncomfortable conditions can use another system to find a match for a car pool participant. Alternatively, individuals may telecommute, staying at home and working with their office electronically. Lastly, the ultimate system is viewed as an automatic vehicle-control system in which a driver's vehicle is checked at an authorized station, and then proceeds on a highway, lane, or local street. On-board computers determine the spacing to the vehicle ahead and lateral control within the lane. Maximum flows are expected to increase from 2,000 vehicles per hour per lane to as many as 10,000 to 20,000. The increased flows will mean substantial reductions in congestion and, because vehicles are automatically controlled, improvements in road safety through the elimination of accidents due to driver error.
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HHH, Buying Time; Research and Policy Symposium on the Land Use and Equity Impacts of Congestion Pricing, Humphrey Institute Minneapolis; 1996.
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Todd Litman. Generated Traffic; Implications for Transport Planning, ITE Journal, Vol. 71, No. 4, Institute of Transportation Engineers April, 2001, pp. 38-47
Todd Litman, Transportation Cost Analysis; Techniques, Estimates and Implications, Victoria Transport Policy Institute 2002.
Raheel Shabih and Kara M. Kockelman, Effect of Vehicle Type on the Capacity of Signalized Intersections: The Case of Light-Duty Trucks, UT Austin 1999.
STPP, Easing the Burden: A Companion Analysis of the Texas Transportation Institute's Congestion Study, Surface Transportation Policy Project May 2001.
TRB, Quantifying Congestion; Final Report and Users Guide, NCHRP Project 7-13, Transportation Research Board 1997.
TTI, Urban Mobility Study, Texas Transportation Institute 2001.
Jane's Urban Transport Systems. Jane's Info Group.
White, Peter. Public Transport: its Planning, Management and Operation. London: UCL Press3d ed., 1995. . Standard textbook.
Manuel E. Grossy
15400 SW 35 Terraces, Miami, Florida, 33185
Phone (305) 220-7282 Fax (305)229-8325 Cellular (305) 505-7557
EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Colegio Criado Perez Colonia Uruguay
Primera Escuela Argentina de Criminology
Buenos Aires Argentina
Bachelors earned: Criminal Investigator
Florida Atlantic University
Quality Leadership & Management Development
6 Years Congress Military Special Forces (Uy)
Training and the United States
Escuela de Las Americas (South Americans Military Forces Training)
Hurricane prepare program University of Miami, Florida
Human Resource Management
Honorary Co- Chairman Business Advisory Council United States Congress Republican Party.
1983 to 1988
Military Forces UY Senator Luis Alberto Lacalle and Congressman Hector Martin Sturla Criminal Advisor.
On Street Supervisor Atlantic Parking
Operational Manager VIP Parking Systems
President AAA Parking Inc.
Consulting to the Parking Industry
Parking Business Consulting
Parking Security Consulting
Work Safety Consultant
Parking Business Development
Windows 3.1 - 95 - 98
Quick Book Pro
WORK REFERENCES UNITED STATES
11-1998 / 8-99
The Roney Palace Hotel
2301 Collins Ave
(305) 531-8811 Ext.3320
08-1994 / 2006
A. A. A. Parking, Inc.
5101 Collins Ave, Miami Beach, Florida 33140
11-1997 / 12-1998
A. A. A. Valet Inc.
Michael Meyer ( Center City Parking, Inc. Owner=s)
100 N. Biscayne Blvd., Suite 1410, Miami, Florida 33130
08-1997 / 2005
A. A. A. Multi service Inc.
5101 Collins Ave, Miami Beach, Florida 33140
Valet Parking and Security Consulting
Jackson Memorial Hospital
07-1998 / 2000
Professional and personal references and Degrees available